I will go through different theories of emotions as well as some of the most important studies; I will then touch upon some criticism of tese theories which suggest that there is still a field for further research. This mental state registers the bodily changes, but represents meaningful, albeit simple, information. There must be an appraiser mechanism which selectively attends to those stimuli external or internal which are the occasion for activating the affect programme Journal of Psychophysiology, 2 , — Judgment theories are the version of the cognitive position that have been developed by philosophers. Please login via your institution. Similarly, they may infer their emotional states from what they do.
Theories of Emotion
Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process , and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman's account into his own theory of the emotions Our results show that somatic state manipulation per se during memory reactivation interferes with further emotional evaluation of a negative memory. The negative emotional evaluation toward the text was assessed with nine questions related to negative emotions like sadness or anger, e. Cognitive Appraisal Theory According to this school, physiological arousal is not always involved in emotional experience. The social functions of emotion. Consistent with this notion, a recent study found a significant correlation between facial mimicry and emotion recognition using dimensional, specifically valence, ratings Sato et al. Making this evaluation sometimes requires a subtle understanding of what the emotion-causing stimulus is.
SAGE Reference - Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
However, contrary to our expectations, the effect of facial action was equally strong in response to both presentation formats. Members of various cultures were being observed when spontaneously making facial expressions and when asked to make them on request - it was found repeatedly that they matched across cultures. This text was chosen in order to induce a negative emotional memory in participants. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39 , — Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses:
Emotion-specific effects of facial expressions and postures on emotional experience. These are some of the examples that Ekman offers: Defining emotions Firstly, how do we define emotions? Most of the theories of emotion are based on this definition; however, there are many disagreements as to which components are influenced by emotions or, on the contrary, are provoked by them. Matsuzawa for helpful advice and Ms. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Propranolol and the prevention of post-traumatic stress disorder: